Your Trusted Resource for Understanding Ear Infections 

Ear infections are a common health issue that can affect both adults and children, but they are especially prevalent among young children. These infections usually occur in the middle ear (otitis media) or the outer ear canal (otitis externa), leading to discomfort, pain, and sometimes more serious health issues if left untreated.

Causes and Risk Factors

Ear infections are primarily caused by bacteria or viruses, which often enter the ear following other illnesses like the cold or flu. These conditions can cause congestion and swelling in the nasal passages, throat, and eustachian tubes, leading to an infection. Factors such as young age, attending daycare, bottle feeding instead of breastfeeding, exposure to tobacco smoke and pollution, and seasonal changes increase the risk of developing ear infections.

Types of Ear Infections

Acute Otitis Media (AOM)

AOM is an infection of the middle ear, the space behind the eardrum, where tiny bones pick up vibrations and assist in hearing. This type of infection is characterized by rapid onset of symptoms, including severe ear pain, fever, and sometimes hearing loss. It’s most commonly seen in children and is often related to other respiratory infections.

Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)

OME occurs when fluid remains trapped behind the eardrum after an infection has cleared. This condition can occur without any visible symptoms, though some may experience a feeling of fullness in the ear and reduced hearing ability. OME can affect anyone but is most common in children due to the size and angle of their eustachian tubes.

Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion (COME)

COME refers to a situation where fluid consistently returns to the middle ear, without an infection or after the infection has been treated. This can lead to hearing difficulties and, in some cases, structural damage to the ear itself. Risk factors include poor eustachian tube function and repeated upper respiratory infections.

Otitis Externa (Swimmer’s Ear)

Otitis externa is an inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal, the tube that runs from the outer ear to the eardrum. This condition is often caused by water remaining in the ear after swimming, creating a moist environment that aids bacterial growth. Symptoms include ear pain, itching, discharge, and temporary hearing loss.

Diagnosis of Ear Infections

Diagnosing an ear infection involves a combination of patient history, physical examination, and sometimes specific diagnostic tests. 

Here’s How Healthcare Providers Diagnose Ear Infections

Medical History and Physical Examination

A detailed medical history helps identify symptoms, their duration, and any preceding illness. During the physical examination, a doctor uses an otoscope, a lighted instrument, to look at the outer ear, eardrum, and, if possible, the middle ear. Inflammation, redness, fluid behind the eardrum, and damage to the eardrum itself are signs of an infection.


Tympanometry is a diagnostic test that uses sound and air pressure to check the movement of the eardrum. This test can help detect fluid in the middle ear, eustachian tube dysfunction, or perforation of the eardrum. It’s particularly useful in diagnosing OME, where fluid may be present without infection.


Audiometry tests are used to evaluate hearing loss, which can be a symptom of middle ear infections or a result of chronic infections. This test measures the softest sound a person can hear at various pitches and volumes, helping to identify the type and extent of hearing loss.

Proper Ear Care

Encouraging proper ear care, such as avoiding inserting objects into the ear and drying ears thoroughly after swimming or bathing, can reduce the risk of otitis externa.

Ear infections, while common, can cause significant discomfort and, in some cases, lead to more serious complications. Prompt and appropriate treatment is essential for a quick recovery and to prevent recurrence. Attend Urgent Care is dedicated to providing comprehensive care, from diagnosis to treatment, ensuring patients understand their condition and receive the support they need for effective recovery.

Contact Us at Attend Urgent Care

If you suspect an ear infection for you or your loved one, do not hesitate to contact Attend Urgent Care. Our team of healthcare professionals is dedicated to providing prompt, compassionate care to help manage and treat ear infections and prevent complications. Contact us today to schedule an appointment and ensure the health and comfort of your family.

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